transformer ratio meter

Types of Losses in a Transformer and Their Effectiveness

An ideal transformer is a transformer that doesn’t have any energy losses. This means that the power supplied to the transformer’s input terminal should be equivalent to that provided to the transformer’s output terminal. Hence an ideal transformer has equal input and output power combined with zero energy losses.

When a transformer ratio meter is used to test an ideal transformer, it corresponds very well to it, displaying no problems or drawbacks. However, in reality, transformers’ input and output power can never be equal due to the electrical losses that occur within the transformer.

This blog will discuss the different types of losses in a transformer

Copper Losses

Copper losses or ohmic losses occur because of the ohmic resistance of the transformer windings. They vary according to the load and are known as variable losses and change depending on the current load.

Iron Losses

The alternating flux present causes iron losses in a transformer’s core. The iron losses can be of two types:

a.Eddy Current Loss

During a flux in a transformer, the flux tends to get linked with a closed circuit via which an emf is produced in the said course, following which the current flows. The EMFs then flow currents in the body due to being made of conducting material, and these flowing currents are known as Eddy currents. As the conductor changes the magnetic fields, the eddy current occurs.

b.Hysteresis Loss

Hysteresis loss primarily occurs whenever the alternating gets applied to the transformer’s core then the magnetic field gets reversed. The loss is primarily dependent on the core material used in the transformer. The transformer’s core gets subjected to an alternating magnetizing force, and a hysteresis loop is traced out for every cycle of emf. The power that gets wasted in the form of heat is called as hysteresis loss.

Stray Loss

Stray losses can occur in a transformer due to any leakage fluxes in the transformer. As it can take place in any part of the transformer, it is known as a stray loss. Stray losses are relatively smaller as compared to iron and copper losses.

Dielectric Loss

Any loss that occurs in the insulating materials of the transformer is known as dielectric loss. It is found either in the oil of the transformer or the solid insulations. It usually occurs when the transformer is old or deteriorates, thereby affecting the transformer’s efficiency. Therefore a bdv of transformer oil is essential and can help prevent dielectric loss.


Udeyraj offers quality transformers that are reliable, affordable, power efficient and durable. Our product range includes transformer oil test kit, transformer ratio meter, and variable voltage auto transformer, apart from other high-quality products that best suit our client’s needs and requirements. We are known to offer customised solutions to our clients. Contact us at Uderaj to know more about our products.

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